Theme: Latest research, insights and implications of biofuels market in crisis of pandemic outbreak
Track 1: Types of Bioenergy
There are many other forms of biofuels and bioenergy such as biomass, biogas, syngas, natural gas, algae biofuels, biofuel gasoline, solid biofuels etc. First generation biofuels are produced from sugar and vegetable oil. Algae biofuels are most advanced form of biofuels that produced from algae as its source of energy-rich oils. It has a vast influence on Genetic engineering. Solid biofuels like biochar can be produced by pyrolysis of biomass. Syngas is a mixture consisting primarily of H2, CO and a little quantity of CO2.
Track 2: Bioenergy
Bioenergy is renewable energy made accessible from materials acquired from biological origin. Biomass is any organic matter which has deposited sunlight in the form of chemical energy. As a fuel it may comprise wood, straw, wood waste, sugarcane, manure, and many other by-products from different agricultural processes. In its most exclusive sense it is a synonym to biofuel, which is fuel obtained from biological sources. In its wider sense it includes biomass, the biological matter utilized as a biofuel, as well as the social, scientific, economic and technical fields related with utilizing biological sources for energy. This is a common misbelief, as bioenergy is the energy cultivated from the biomass, as the biomass is the fuel and the bioenergy is the energy stored in the fuel.
- Technologies in Bioenergy
- Bioenergy - Advances & Applications
- Bioenergy Conversion
- Bioenergy feedstock
- Bioenergy systems
- Bio-chemical conversion
Track 3: Advanced Biofuels
Advanced biofuels are fuels that can be processed from numerous types of biomass. First generation biofuels are processed from the sugars and vegetable oils formed in arable crops, which can be smoothly extracted applying conventional technology. In comparison, advanced biofuels are made from lignocellulose biomass or woody crops, agricultural residues or waste, which makes it tougher to extract the requisite fuel. Advanced biofuel technologies have been devised because first generation biofuels manufacture has major limitations. First generation biofuel processes are convenient but restrained in most cases: there is a limit above which they cannot yield enough biofuel without forbidding food supplies and biodiversity. Many first generation biofuels rely on subsidies and are not cost competitive with prevailing fossil fuels such as oil, and some of them yield only limited greenhouse gas emissions savings. When considering emissions from production and transport, life-cycle assessment from first generation biofuels usually approach those of traditional fossil fuels. Advanced biofuels can aid resolving these complications and can impart a greater proportion of global fuel supply affordably, sustainably and with larger environmental interests.
- Fast pyrolysis process
- Thermochemical & Biochemical Routes
- Synthesis of advanced biofuels
- Lignocellulose Biomass
- Development of bioenergy technology
- Scope of Second & Third generation of Biofuels
Track 4: Biogas
Biogas commonly refers to a mixture of various gases formed by the disintegration of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. Biogas can be manufactured from raw matters such as agricultural waste, municipal waste, manure, plant material, green waste, and sewage or food waste. Biogas is a renewable energy source and in diverse cases exerts a limited carbon footprint. Biogas can be manufactured by fermentation of biodegradable materials or anaerobic digestion with anaerobic organisms, which disintegrates material inside an isolated system. Biogas is basically methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) and may have small traces of hydrogen sulphide (H2S), silicones and moisture. The gases methane, carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen can be combusted or oxidized with oxygen. This energy yield allows biogas to be benefitted as a fuel; it can be utilized for any heating purpose, such as cooking. It can also be practiced in a gas engine to transform the energy in the gas to electricity and heat.
- Biogas from algae
- Biogas technologies
- Biogas from agricultural waste
- New & possible substrates for biogas production
- Anaerobic packed-bed biogas reactors
- Biogas from breeding farms
- Large scale biogas production & challenges
Track 5: Algae Biofuels
Algae fuel or algal biofuel is a substitute to liquid fossil fuels that utilizes algae as its source of energy-rich oils. Also, algae fuels are a substitute to common known biofuel sources, such as corn and sugarcane. Various companies and government agencies are sponsoring efforts to reduce capital and operating costs and make algae fuel production commercially feasible. Like fossil fuel, algae fuel releases CO2 when burnt, but unlike fossil fuel, algae fuel and other biofuels only release CO2 recently withdrawn from the atmosphere via photosynthesis as the algae or plant grew. The energy crisis and the world food crisis have sparked interest in alga culture (farming algae) for making biodiesel and other biofuels utilizing land unbefitting for agriculture. Among algal fuels' attractive characteristics are that they can be cultivated with negligible impact on fresh water resources, can be generated using saline and wastewater, have a high flash point, and are biodegradable and comparatively harmless to the environment if spilled. Algae cost more per unit mass than other advanced biofuel crops due to high capital and operating costs, but are declared to generate between 10 and 100 times more fuel per unit area.
- Culturing Algae
- Harvesting and oil extraction systems
- Cyanobacteria biofuels production
- Commercialization of algae biofuels
- Wastewater based algae biofuels production
- Advances in algal biofuel production
- Biofuels from microalgae and Microbes
Track 6: Biodiesel
Biodiesel indicates an animal fat-based or vegetable oil diesel fuel comprising of long-chain alkyl esters. Biodiesel is customarily made by chemically reacting lipids (e.g., soybean oil, vegetable oil, animal fat) with an alcohol generating fatty acid esters. Biodiesel is suggested to be utilized in standard diesel engines and is thus well-defined from the vegetable and waste oils used to operate fuel converted diesel engines. Biodiesel can be used singly, or blended with petro diesel in any proportions. Biodiesel blends can also be utilized as heating oil.
- Biodiesel as automobile fuel
- Biodiesel to hydrogen-cell power
- Biodiesel production on industry level and scale up
- Crops for biodiesel production
- Impact of biodiesel on pollutant emissions and public
- Cost effective techniques for biodiesel production
Track 7: Biomass
Biomass is organic matter extracted from living, or recently living organisms. Biomass can be utilized as a source of energy and it most often directs to plants or plant-based matter which are not used for food or feed, and are precisely called lignocellulose biomass. As an energy source, biomass can either be used directly via combustion to produce heat, or secondarily after transforming it to numerous forms of biofuel. Conversion of biomass to biofuel can be attained by various methods which are mainly categorized into: thermal, chemical, and biochemical methods.
Biomass is a renewable source of fuel to yield energy since waste residues will always prevail – in forms of scrap wood, mill residuals and forest resources and properly directed forests will always have additional trees, and we will invariably have crops and the unconsumed biological matter from those crops.
- Conversion technologies
- Biomass and electricity
- Industrial waste biomass
- Sustainable feedstock development
- Perennial biomass feed stocks
- Integrated biomass technologies
- Recent developments in sustainable biomass
Biomass is the organic matter derived from plants which is generated through photosynthesis. In particular it can be referred to solar energy stored in the chemical bonds of the organic material. In addition to many benefits common to renewable energy, biomass is attractive because it is current renewable source of liquid transportation of biofuel. The Bioenergy Conference and Biofuel Conferences will optimize and enhance existing systems. However, biomass could play in responding to the nation's energy demands assuming, the economic and advances in conversion technologies will make biomass fuels and products more economically viable? The renewable energy policies in the European Union have already led to a significant progress, energy mix should further change till 2022.
- Biomass Resources for Bioenergy
- Agriculture residues
- Forestry materials
- Energy crops
Track 9: Renewable Energy
Renewable energy is energy that is collected from natural sources that replenish themselves over short periods of time, renewable energy resources exist over wide geographical areas. Rapid deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency is resulting in significant energy security, climate change mitigation, and economic benefits. While many renewable energy projects are large-scale, renewable technologies are also suited to rural and remote areas and developing countries, where energy is often crucial in human development. Electricity can be converted to heat (where necessary generating higher temperatures than fossil fuels), can be converted into mechanical energy with high efficiency and is clean at the point of consumption. In addition to that electrification with renewable energy is much more efficient and therefore leads to a significant reduction in primary energy requirements; because most renewables don't have a steam cycle with high losses (fossil power plants usually have losses of 40 to 65%). Renewable energy systems are rapidly becoming more efficient and cheaper. Their share of total energy consumption is increasing. Growth in consumption of coal and oil could end by 2020 due to increased uptake of renewables and natural gas. Renewable energy flows involve natural phenomena such as sunlight, wind, tides, plant growth, geothermal heat and biofuels and hydrogen derived from renewable resources. It would also reduce environmental pollution such as air pollution caused by burning of fossil fuels and improve public health, reduce premature mortalities due to pollution.
- Solar Energy
- Wind Energy
- Renewable chemicals
- Green Energy
- Green Economy
- Energy saving technology
- Environment impact
- Hybrid Energy Systems
Track 10: Green Chemistry
Green chemistry is an area of chemistry and chemical engineering focused on the creating and designing of products and processes that minimize the use and generation of hazardous substances. It still maintains economic growth and opportunities while providing affordable products and services to a growing world population.
- Synthetic techniques
- Bio Succinic acid
- Environmental science and sustainable chemistry
- Sustainable energy
Track 11: Biomass Technologies
Several technologies for converting bioenergy are commercial today while others are being piloted or in research and development. There are four types of conversion technologies currently available, each appropriate for specific biomass types and resulting in specific energy products such as Thermal Conversion, Thermochemical conversion, Biochemical conversion, Chemical conversion. The Biomass Technologies include Liquid Biofuels from Biomass and Cellulosic Ethanol from Biomass.
- Latest conversion Technologies in Biomass
- Liquid Biofuels from Biomass
- Trending Research from Biomass
- Cellulosic Ethanol from Biomass
Track 12: Bio-alcohols and Bioethanol
Biologically synthesized alcohols, most frequently ethanol, and rarely propanol and butanol, are formed by the reaction of microorganisms and enzymes through the fermentation of sugars or starches, or cellulose. Biobutanol is often asserted to provide a direct stand-in for gasoline, because it can be used precisely in a gasoline engine. Ethanol fuel is the most widely used biofuel worldwide. Alcohol fuels are formed by fermentation of sugars derived from wheat, sugar beets, corn, molasses, sugar cane and any sugar or starch from which alcoholic liquors such as whiskey, can be produced (such as potato and fruit waste). The ethanol manufacturing methods applied are enzyme digestion, distillation, fermentation of the sugars and drying. Ethanol can be used in petrol engines as a substitute for gasoline; it can be blended with gasoline to any concentration. Current car petrol engines can operate on mixes of up to 15% bioethanol along with petroleum/gasoline. Ethanol has lesser energy density than that of gasoline; this implies that it takes more fuel to generate the same amount of work. An asset of ethanol is its higher octane rating than ethanol-free gasoline accessible at roadside gas stations, which permits the rise of an engine's compression ratio for increased thermal efficiency. In high-altitude locations, some states direct a mix of gasoline and ethanol as a winter oxidizer to lower atmospheric pollution emissions.
- Bio alcohols as automobile fuel
- Bioethanol utilization
- Scale up on industrial level
- Bioethanol Production
- Delivering Biomass Substrates for Bioethanol Production
- Bioethanol Economics
- Sustainable Development of Bioethanol Production
- Production of Bioethanol
- Bio alcohols from algae
Track 13: Bio-hydrogen
Bio hydrogen is described as hydrogen produced biologically, most often by algae, bacteria and archaea. Bio hydrogen is a potential biofuel attainable from both cultivation and from waste organic materials. Recently, there is a huge demand for hydrogen. There is no record of the production volume and use of hydrogen world-wide, however utilization of hydrogen was predicted to have reached 900 billion cubic meters in 2011.Refineries are large-volume producers and consumers of hydrogen. Today 96% of all hydrogen is extracted from fossil fuels, with 48% from natural gas, 30% from hydrocarbons, and 18% from coal and about 4% by electrolysis. Oil-sands processing, gas-to-liquids and coal gasification projects that are existing, require a vast amount of hydrogen and is presumed to raise the requirement notably within the next few years. Environmental regulations administered in most countries, increase the hydrogen demand at refineries for gas-line and diesel desulfurization. A significant future aspect of hydrogen could be as a replacement for fossil fuels, once the oil deposits are exhausted. This application is however dependent on the advancement of storage techniques to enable proper storage, distribution and combustion of hydrogen.
- Algal bio-hydrogen
- Bacterial bio-hydrogen
- Fermentative bio-hydrogen production
- High-yield bio-hydrogen production
- Enhancing bio-hydrogen production
- Bio-hydrogen purification
- Production of Hydrogen by Photosynthetic organisms
- Emergency of the hydrogen economy
Track 14: Bio-refineries
A bio-refinery is a center that melds biomass conversion processes and equipment to manufacture fuels, power, heat, and chemicals from biomass. The bio-refinery concept is parallel to today's petroleum refinery, which makes various fuels and products from petroleum. Bio-refining is the sustainable conversion of biomass into a spectrum of bio-based products and bioenergy. By producing various products, a bio-refinery takes advantage of the various parts in biomass and their intermediates therefore maximizing the value acquired from the biomass feedstock. A bio-refinery could, for instance, manufacture one or several low-volume, but high-value, chemical or Nutriceutical products and a low-value, but high-volume liquid transportation fuel such as biodiesel. At the same time generating electricity and process heat, by combined heat and power (CHP) technology, for its own use and perhaps adequate for sale of electricity to the local utility. The high-value products boost profitability, the high-volume fuel helps meet energy needs, and the power production aids to lower energy costs and minimize greenhouse gas emissions from conventional power plant facilities. Although some facilities prevail that can be called bio-refineries, the bio-refinery has yet to be fully accomplished. Future bio-refineries may play a vital role in yielding chemicals and materials that are traditionally extracted from petroleum.
- Risk management issues
- Chemical conversion in bio-refinery
- Bio oil production
- Bio waste bio-refinery
- Valorisation of Bio-refinery
- Lignocellulose material in bio-refinery
- Bio-refining scheme from algal and bacterial protein sources
Track 15: Food VS. Fuels debate
Food versus fuel is the plight regarding the risk of distracting farmland or crops for biofuels production to the drawback of the food supply. The biofuel and food price debate concerns wide-ranging views and is an abiding, controversial one in the literature. There is a conflict about the sense of the issue, what is creating it, and what can or should be rendered to remedy the situation. This intricacy and uncertainty is due to the wide number of concussion and criticism loops that can positively or negatively affect the price system. Furthermore, the relative strengths of these positive and negative impacts change in the short and long terms, and implicate delayed effects. The academic side of the debate is also obscured by the applicability of different economic models and competing forms of statistical analysis.
- Biofuels impact on food security
- Non-food crops for biofuels production
- Agricultural modernization and its impact on society
- Food, fuel and freeways
Track 16: Aviation biofuel
Aviation biofuel is a biofuel utilized for aircraft. It is reckoned by some to be the paramount means by which the aviation industry can diminish its carbon footprint. After a multi-year technical analysis from aircraft makers, engine manufacturers and oil companies, biofuels were advocated for commercial use in July 2011. Since then, some airlines have evaluated with using of biofuels on commercial flights. The limelight of the industry has now curved to advanced sustainable biofuels that do not compete with food supplies nor are major consumers of prime agricultural land or fresh water.
- Applications of aviation biofuels
- Jet biofuel
- Commercialization of aviation biofuels
- Green replacement fuels in flights
- Synthesis of aviation biofuel via Fischer-Tropsch process
- Risk analysis of aviation fuels
- Developing of new sources for aviation biofuels
Track 17: Production of Biofuels
Currently used liquid biofuels, which include ethanol produced from crops containing sugar and starch and biodiesel from oilseeds, are referred to as first-generation biofuels. These fuels only use a portion of the energy potentially available in the biomass. Various techniques are currently being developed to produce biofuels. However, it is uncertain when such technologies will enter production on a significant commercial scale. The production of Biofuels can be done from Biomass, Biodiesel from Biomass, and Biochemical from Biomass and Biogas from Biomass
- Production of Biofuels from Biomass
- Production of Biodiesel from Biomass
- Production of Biochemical from Biomass
- Production of Biogas from Biomass
- Energy balance of biofuel production
- Advances in biofuel production
- Syngas from Biomass
Track 18: Environmental impacts of biofuel
One of the major reasons for showing interest towards biofuels is to minimize the greenhouse gas and carbonyl emissions and to mitigate the climate change caused by fossil fuels. The greenhouse gases may be emitted by changes of cropland use because of increased biofuels production from one crop to another. In some cases more carbon is generated by converting a land that is used for growing biofuel feedstock to forest than the biofuel production itself. Biofuels also have a vital impact on the biodiversity and the water resources.
Due to the limitation and rapid increase in price of fossil fuels, the world research is turning towards the biofuels and bioenergy as better future fuels from the last two decades. Currently, bioenergy has become grown as the largest renewable energy resource providing 10% of world primary energy requirements. And from a recent report, it has projected that 27% of world transportation fuel can be generated from biofuels by 2050. The aim of this congress is to present the dynamics overview of the growth of biofuel over the last decade, its importance and to the possible impacts on the environment and the other aspects of Biofuels & Bio economy worldwide.
Biofuels have been progressively explored as a probable alternative source of fuel and serve a key target for the future energy market that can play a vital role in preserving energy security. As the only direct substitute for fossil fuels, biofuels continue to grow in importance, despite a significant slowdown in investment. International trade remains active, with dynamic growth from the major exporting countries.
However, current production technologies will very soon come up against the limits of resource availability, raising important questions regarding the ability to meet incorporation targets for 2021, especially in Europe and the USA. The contribution of different biofuels to reducing fossil-fuel consumption varies widely when the Bioenergy used as an input in their production is also taken into account. The Bioenergy balance of a biofuel depends on factors such as feedstock characteristics, production location, agricultural practices and the source of energy used for the conversion process.
In 2010, worldwide biofuel production reached 105 billion litres (28 billion gallons US), up 17% from 2009, and biofuels provided 2.7% of the world’s fuels for road transport. Europe was the leading biodiesel market in 2009 with a production share of 49.8%, followed by the Americas with a production share of 32.8% and the Asia Pacific with a share of 4.4%. The European share in biodiesel production has been declining since 2001, while the share of the Americas and the Asia Pacific increased. The US is the second largest producer of biodiesel in the world, producing 17.7% of the world’s biodiesel in 2009. The biodiesel market in the US is expected to reach 2,822 million litres in 2010 and 6,453 million litres in 2020. However, of all the renewable sources of energy, biomass is unique in that it is effectively stored solar energy. It is also the only renewable source of carbon and can be processed into convenient solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels.
The biomass market suffered during the economic downturn in the face of low coal prices, logistic barriers and supply issues. The year 2010 saw more movement in the sector as coal prices are beginning to raise once again making co-firing coal plants with biomass more attractive. CIS countries like Russia, Australia, and South Africa have entered as significant suppliers for the Production of Biomass, which if Europe is expected to be the largest renewable aviation fuel market over the foreseeable future on account of huge investment in development and favourable environment regulations. The growing use of biofuels across the globe is one of the key factors spurring growth aviation fuel market. Countries are introducing mandates and policies to encourage the use of biofuels in the aviation industry to deal with the issue of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). The U.S. military and commercial planes use a blend of Fischer-Tropsch (FT) and conventional fuel at significant extent. FT blended fuel was the leading market in 2013 owing to growing demand for defence planes. Hydro treated jet fuel is also expected to witness significant growth over the forecast period. On the basis of application, renewable aviation fuel market has been segmented into commercial and defence. Commercial application segment is expected to be the largest market over the forecast period owing to sensitive conventional aviation fuel prices. The increase in the number of aircraft in the recent years and continued growth in the number of air passengers in the region are expected to contribute to the growth in the aviation fuel market in the Americas during the forecast period.
- Types of Bioenergy
- Advanced Biofuels
- Algae Biofuels
- Biomass feed stocks for renewable energy generation
- Renewable Energy
- Green Chemistry
- Biomass Technologies
- Bioalcohols and Bioethanol
- Food VS. Fuels debate
- Aviation biofuel
- Production of Biofuels
- Environmental impacts of biofuel
- Growth of biofuel and bioenergy in the last decade
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All accepted abstracts will be published in respective Our International Journals.
- Journal of Innovative Energy & Research
- Journal of Fundamentals of Renewable Energy and Applications
- Journal of Environmental Research
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